Tag Archives: Freire

Pedagogy of the Adjuncts

I really enjoyed both Pedagogy of the Oppressed and Teaching as a Subversive Activity and found, unexpectedly, lots of similarities. For instance, Freire advocates “problem-posing pedagogy” and ? advocates the “inquiry method.” Both seem to mean posing problems that students then discuss, and that then lead to more problems, rather than easy answers. Both also emphasize that students themselves should engage in critical inquiry, asking questions and gathering information in order to confront the reality of their own situations, rather than being “submerged” as Freire puts it in the oppressors’ (or adults’) reality. Both also share the idea that public education (ostensibly including university education) is basically intended to keep people submerged, to distract people from reality, rather than exposing them to it.

There is also an important difference between Freire and Postman, however—that Postman’s system is geared to “help young people master concepts of survival in a rapidly changing world,” while Freire’s goal is Marxist revolution. Though I am continually encouraged to think creatively and critically in many of my undergraduate and graduate classes, I think many of us connected to the university system often ignore the oppressive nature of the university itself, which Freire would likely point out, as far as it is possible to do so.

I am going to school for my doctorate (as we all are) to (hopefully) become a tenure-track professor. While I am committed to my career path for many reasons—because I want to teach others how to think critically and to enjoy literature, and because I have an incurable passion for literature myself, I am also honest about the economic dimensions of my dream. I like to travel and listen to Beethoven!

On the other hand, that middle-class reality is not happening for many teachers of English who are struggling to make a living as adjuncts. I see clearly that many teachers are themselves oppressed, and yet I, and I think many others, still cling to the hope of a tenure-track job, rather than addressing ourselves to the question of how the whole university teaching system might be reformed, even when we know it is likely to become our problem in earnest if we become adjuncts. I know this post is a bit rambly, but it (hopefully) sets forth my big question: How can we not only implement Freire in our classrooms, but also address the reality that the university itself is an oppressive system (hopefully while remaining a part of it)?

Applying “Pedagogy of the Oppressed” to Our Classrooms

One of the introductions to Pedagogy of the Oppressed contains the line “certainly it would be absurd to claim that it [Freire’s method of teaching illiterates] should be copied here [21st century America]” (33). Obviously that’s true, but as Richard Shaull, the writer of this introduction, goes onto say there are still some similarities between Freire’s situation and ours. Like Shaull, I believe that a lot of Freire’s ideas could be very valuable to us (even in New York City) in our role as both educators and students. I would like to think about what Freire can tell us about our role as educators, but mostly I’d like ask a lot of questions I had while reading. (Perhaps that I’m distinguishing between a role as educator and a role a student shows that I haven’t really internalized [come to grips with?] Freire’s ideas yet.)

I’ve never stepped foot into a college classroom as a teacher yet, but Freire is so persuasive I’d like to incorporate much of his thinking into my class. But I’m not sure how to apply it! I’d like to start out with an issue that’s very basic to Freire’s thinking: that some people (probably very many people) are oppressed. Freire writes of the oppressed that “because of their identification with the oppressor, they have no consciousness of themselves as persons or as members of an oppressed class” (46). My first question is: how do we as CUNY teachers help people realize that they are oppressed? I know that sounds very nasty. No one wants to realize he is oppressed. I’m sure it is very painful to learn. But, if I understand Freire correctly, in order to change the existing order of oppressors and oppressed then the oppressed need to realize their oppression. After all, how can we change something if we’re not aware of it?

Freire, very wisely in my view, goes on to write “Every prescription represents the imposition of one individual’s choice upon another, transforming the consciousness of the person prescribed to into one that conforms with the prescriber’s consciousness” (47). I believe this to mean that merely telling the students “You’re oppressed” would be prescriptive, and not very good for anyone. It would be no different from the banking model of education: dumping information into docile students’ heads. But how does a person in authority (who, in my case, happens to be white, straight, male, if not Catholic then the son of lapsed Catholics, and bearded, which I understand is often unconsciously registered a symbol of authority, albeit a very stylish symbol) begin the process of addressing oppression in class? I’m aware that a poorly worded phrase from me can sound an awful lot like oppression, rather than what I hope is a productive, honest discussion about the social landscape. Beside potential outrage at an ill formed turn of phrase by me, I’m concerned with two other negative results: 1) that a student would feel hurt or in pain to learn that he is considered oppressed; and 2) that when beginning a dialogue about sensitive issues of oppression in class, two or more students could begin trading nasty remarks.

I understand that the second scenario is not unlikely. Having talked to some upperclass-people who have taught before I’ve heard stories of students accusing each other of either being oppressive pigs or lazy, charity cases &c. While I want to foster open and honest  dialogue, I want the classroom to feel safe. I don’t want students fearing that in class they will be rudely awakened to learn they are oppressed or that they will be derided by their classmates. My big question is how do we construct a classroom that fosters honest, productive dialogue that feels safe for students? Should I look for texts that might naturally raise questions of oppression? If so does anyone have suggestions? Should I use some kind of collaborative project to get students talking about oppression? If so what kind?

Of course, if I bring up issues of oppression in class I want remember Freire’s later warning “This accusation [that banking education makes students more docile] is not made in the naive hope that the dominant elites will thereby simply abandon the practice. Its objective is to call the attention of true humanists to the fact that they cannot use banking educational methods in the pursuit of liberation, for they would only negate that very pursuit (76).” Again, if I understand Freire correctly, it’s not helpful to simply tell students what to think, even if what we want them to think is good old leftist viewpoints. So how do I bring up the issue without hurting anyone?

I do have other questions about how to apply what I understand Freire to say. I’m curious what Freire means by “problem-posing” education. Does that mean what I’ve been taught is the Socratic method? That’s my guess, but I’m curious to know what others think. I’m also curious how the “problem-posing” method positions the teacher and the student. If I’m asking questions of the students to elicit knowledge from my students, where do I get my authority from? I’d like to believe (and this could be pure vanity) that after 5 years of English study I will have some knowledge to give. How does that fit into my relation with the students? Even more specifically, if I am a Socratic interlocutor, how do I introduce myself to my students? Socrates introduced himself by saying that he knew nothing. I’m not sure if that approach would work with students paying to attend CUNY. How do current teachers introduce themselves to students and explain the student-teacher relationship?

Please NB: I haven’t quite finished the 4th chapter of Freire, but even if he addresses some of these issues in the last pages, I’d be curious to hear other opinions as well.